If you ever bit the inside of your cheek, you know the pain related to such a mishap. While many people experience cheek biting as an occasional accident, others struggle with it as a bad habit or obsessive action. Read on to learn more about cheek biting, what causes it, and how to treat it.
What is Cheek Biting?
Known as morsicatio buccarum, chronic cheek biting or chewing is often seen as a physical response to stress and anxiety. There are varying levels of cheek biting behavior ranging from an accidental bite to chronic, obsessive cheek biting.
Symptoms range from a canker sore (accidental biting or during sleep) to regular sores and ulcers. In extreme cases, regular cheek biting can lead to scar tissue and inflammation of the cheek tissues.
Often, check biting is a simple accident that happens when you chew incorrectly. It can also be a sign of misaligned teeth. However, repeated chewing inside of the mouth is a sign of anxiety. Like hair pulling and skin picking, cheek biting can be a physical manifestation of stress. In these cases, the act of biting your cheek is known as a body-focused repetitive behavior (BFRD).
If this seems like you, book an appointment today to see how Jefferson can help.
Types of Cheek Biting
Did you know that there are different types of cheek biting? There are five main types to address the frequency and severity of cheek biting behavior.
1. Periodic Accidental Cheek Biting
Let’s face it, everybody bites their cheek once in a while. It happens accidentally in many situations, including sports, roughhousing, and even chewing food or gum.
Periodic accidental cheek biting may result in a canker sore, but it isn’t usually a concern. Of course, it may sting for a bit, but it’s not something you’re likely to do again soon!
2. Regular Accidental Cheek Biting
What if it does happen again, sooner than you’d like? If you notice that you accidentally bite your cheeks more frequently than you care to, then you may have alignment issues with your jaw. Contact your dentist if you notice an issue with accidental cheek biting.
Of note, some people notice regular accidental cheek biting related to the eruption of their wisdom teeth. It’s possible to experience more irritation and cuts to the insides of your cheeks as your wisdom teeth break through.
3. Cheek Biting in Sleep
Some people grind their teeth during sleep, but others chew on the insides of their cheeks. It’s difficult to stop yourself if you don’t realize you’re doing it until you wake up in the morning, right? Reach out to your dental team to discuss the possibility of an orthodontic appliance to protect your cheeks overnight.
4. Habitual Cheek Biting
Have you ever noticed somebody chewing on their cheek? For some people, compulsive cheek biting is a semiconscious behavior and bad habit triggered by underlying emotions or a reaction to their environment.
5. Chronic Cheek Biting and BFRB
BFRB, or body-focused repetitive behavior is something a person cannot control without help. When the cheek biting crosses from a controllable behavior to a compulsion, it takes on a new name, morsicatio buccarum. Chronic cheek biting is estimated to affect about 750 people in one million.
People who chew on their cheeks repeatedly usually have underlying anxiety disorders. The condition, and repetitive behaviors can impact every aspect of their lives.
Cheek biting can be categorized into five types based on frequency and severity. Periodic accidental cheek biting happens occasionally and is not a major concern. Regular accidental cheek biting may indicate jaw alignment issues or wisdom teeth eruption. Cheek biting during sleep can be addressed with orthodontic appliances. Habitual cheek biting is a conscious or semi-conscious behavior triggered by emotions or environment. Chronic cheek biting, known as morsicatio buccarum, is a compulsive behavior associated with body-focused repetitive behavior (BFRB) and anxiety disorders, affecting approximately 750 individuals per million.
What Causes Cheek Biting?
Aside from those accidental cheek bites, it’s usually possible to identify the underlying cause of the behavior. Generally, people chew on their cheeks when stressed or anxious, or if they feel bored due to inactivity.
Most cases of chronic cheek biting relate to an underlying psychological cause. However, some researchers suggest there is a genetic component. Chronic cheek biting usually emerges in late childhood.
Cheek Biting in Children
Cheek biting can be very painful for kids. It can cause discomfort, swelling, and even ulcers or infections in the mouth, which can make it challenging for them to eat or speak normally. But don’t worry, parents can help their little ones kick this habit. First, try to distract them with other fun activities or toys. Encourage them to be mindful of their biting and remind them to stop when they catch themselves doing it. And remember, there can be a few different reasons why kids bite their cheeks, like feeling stressed, anxious, or having sensory issues. If the habit continues, there are treatments available to help. Behavioral therapy can be effective, or a dental appliance might be recommended to prevent further damage to their mouth.
Dangers and Complications of Cheek Biting
When you bite your cheek, you probably notice a sting and possibly discomfort when you eat or drink. However, the area usually heals within a few days, then you forget all about it until you happen to do it again.
Unfortunately, chronic cheek biters who struggle with controlling the behavior, especially who chew their cheeks as a BFRB, end up with more severe sores. Repetitive chewers generally develop cheek biting scars, and some even erode the soft tissues of the cheek.
Repetitive cheek biters can develop related complications if they continue the behavior. First, compulsive cheek biters often experience psychological damage due guilt or shame related to their inability to stop. Additionally, some studies suggest that chronic irritation of the tissues of the cheek can lead to oral cancer.
How To Stop Cheek Biting
Though it’s difficult to prevent those occasional cheek biting incidents, it is possible to manage regular accidental and overnight chewing. For those struggling with chronic cheek biting, you can learn coping methods. It’s necessary to understand the triggers and causes to determine the best course of treatment.
Stress and anxiety
Cheek biting is a common habit that many people engage in, often unconsciously. While it may seem harmless, there are underlying psychological factors that can contribute to this behavior. Stress and anxiety are two major factors that can lead to cheek biting. When we experience stress or anxiety, we may feel tense and restless, and our bodies may respond by engaging in repetitive behaviors such as cheek biting. This behavior can provide temporary relief, but over time, it can lead to physical discomfort and even pain. In addition to physical effects, cheek biting can also have negative psychological effects such as decreased self-esteem and increased anxiety.
Managing Accidental and Overnight Cheek Biting
Regular accidental cheek biting may require orthodontic treatment to rectify misalignments. People who only bite their cheeks during sleep could resolve the problem with an orthodontic appliance, much like those used for teeth grinders.
Treating Chronic Cheek Biting
Since chronic cheek biting usually involves psychological factors, including stress and anxiety, treatment is different. While orthodontic appliances or alternative behaviors, like chewing gum could help, it’s necessary to address the underlying issues.
When dentists suspect a patient’s cheek biting behavior is a body-focused repetitive behavior, they may suggest a mouth guard for cheek biting to protect the cheeks and permit proper healing. However, they will also refer the patient to another doctor for therapy and possibly medication.
There are several therapeutic options for chronic cheek biters. Medication can help manage the anxiety, but some type of therapy is usually advised to learn alternate coping mechanisms.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on the negative thoughts that lead to the anxiety and ultimately the cheek biting behavior.
- Habit reversal training uses multiple methods to help individuals gain awareness and ultimately control the behavior.
- Comprehensive behavioral treatment involves learning new skills to manage underlying emotions instead of biting your cheeks.
- Acceptance and commitment therapy teaches acceptance of the feelings and behaviors and mindfulness techniques to stop the repetitive cheek biting.
- Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a highly successful treatment for self-harm behaviors, including cheek biting. It involves a combination of acceptance, mindfulness, and learning to regulate emotions.
Cheek biting can range from an accidental bite to a chronic, obsessive behavior caused by stress and anxiety. Symptoms include canker sores, regular sores, ulcers, scar tissue, and inflammation. There are five types of cheek biting, namely accidental biting, sleep biting, habitual biting, chronic biting, and body-focused repetitive behavior. If you are experiencing cheek biting, it’s important to see a dentist to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.
What You Should Do About Cheek Biting
Occasional accidental cheek biting is a common issue that affects all of us from time to time. However, the other four types of cheek biting require some attention and intervention.
If you suspect cheek biting is a problem, the team at Jefferson Dental and Orthodontics can help. Find the office nearest you and schedule your appointment today!
What factors contribute to developing cheek biting habits?
Stress, anxiety, certain psychological disorders, medications, and dental issues like misaligned teeth or restorations are all potential risk factors.
Is cheek biting a common habit for adults and children?
Yes, cheek biting is a common habit among both adults and children.
What kind of complications can result from long-term cheek biting?
Complications can include damage to the cheeks, lips, or gums, dental decay or erosion, and chronic pain or discomfort in the mouth.
How can I tell if my cheek biting is a normal habit or a problem?
Cheek biting may occur occasionally and without causing any physical harm or discomfort. But, if cheek biting becomes frequent, and severe, or causes pain, discomfort, or injury to the mouth, it can become an issue.
Are there any medications or supplements that can help reduce cheek biting?
Medications for anxiety or depression and supplements like magnesium or vitamin B complex may be helpful in reducing cheek biting. However, it’s important to consult with your doctor before trying any new medication or supplement to ensure it’s safe and effective for you.